The Role of Aedes Mosquito in Yellow Fever Virus Transmission and its Control in Africas

Abate Waldetensai

Throughout the world, many nuisance and potential transmitters of human and animal infections mosquitoes are distributing and occupying many biotopes. The female Aedes mosquitoes are commonly vectoring arboviruses by simply extracting blood from people, birds and other animals to obtain proteins needed to develop her eggs. Yellow fever virus, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, rift valley fever virus and zika virus are among the vector borne diseases. Understanding the competent vectors and the transmission cycle of yellow fever is the first step of collecting evidence since it provides suitable contribution for control strategies in different contexts.

The main objective of this paper was to review the ecological studies focused on yellow fever transmission by the major responsible vectors and what control methods are being performed in African regions. The differences in transmission of the virus with different mosquito species were reviewed from published documents. The circulation of yellow fever virus in the tropical regions of Africa relies on distinct hosts and vectors in sylvatic, rural or urban. The transmission of the virus among humans is associated with the presence of the vectors and unvaccinated population. The vectorial role can be influenced by the density, longevity and competence of the vector and associated environmental, behavioral, cellular and biochemical factors. Aedes aegypti, Aedes africanus, Aedes luteocephalus, Aedes bromeliae, Aedes furcife and Aedes taylori have been shown to be the main vectors of yellow fever. The two core control strategies of yellow fever are vector control that requires a constant effort wherever the risk of vector development is high and immunization/vaccination of populations at risk. Chemical, biological and environmental sanitation are the best and frequented control methods in Africa. Integrated control taking into account sanitation and mutualized with other vector borne diseases, is cost effective and should be favored.

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